A small, round bread traditionally eaten at breakfast. Muffins are now eaten for lunch, dinner, and for snacks. They are frequently high-CALORIE, high-FAT foods, however, and the fat content can range from less than 0.5 g to 16 g. The percentage of calories from fat can range from less than 2 percent to more than 50 percent. A majority of commercially available muffins incorporate HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL. Such oils are “saturated”; excessive saturated fat is linked to an increased risk of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. Diet guidelines call for Americans to decrease their consumption of saturated fat from all sources. CHOLESTEROL in muffins comes from whole MILK, whole EGGS, and lard (when used). A muffin made from whole eggs may contain 20 mg of cholesterol. Fat-free muffins are usually made with egg whites and nonfat milk or skim milk in place of whole eggs and whole milk.
To minimize fat, sodium, and cholesterol contributed by muffins, patients should:
avoid eating muffins listing sugar or fat (oil or shortening) as the first or second ingredient. Cheese and chocolate additions increase calories.
select fat-free muffins. Muffins using CANOLA OIL, SUNFLOWER oil, and the like are preferable to hydrogenated fat.
choose muffins made from whole grain flour, BRAN, FRUIT, and vegetables, which are generally more healthful.
Nutrient contents for a commercial blueberry muffin (45 g) are 140 calories; protein, 2.7 g; carbohydrate, 22 g; fiber, 1.25 g; fat, 4.9 g; cholesterol, 45 mg; sodium, 225 g; thiamin, 0.11 mg; riboflavin, 0.13 mg; niacin, 1.17 mg.
mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)
A LEGUME usually consumed in America as bean sprouts. Mung beans probably originated in India and were cultivated in China and Southeast Asia for centuries. More recently, mung beans were introduced into Africa, the West Indies, and the United States. India and Pakistan account for most of the world production. In India and Pakistan mung bean flour is prepared from dried beans. For sprouting, moistened beans are allowed to begin growing (germinate) in the dark for four to seven days. A pound (0.45 kg) of mung beans yields six to eight pounds of sprouts (2.7 to 3.6 kg). Sprouts are used in salads or can be stir-fried with CELERY, green PEPPER, beans, ONIONS, MEAT, FISH, or POULTRY. Sprouts can be used in quiches, chow mein, and chop suey. Nutrient content of 1 cup of mung beans (104 g) is: 32 calories; protein, 3 g; carbohydrate, 6 g; fiber, 0.84 g; vitamin A, 22 retinol equivalents; thiamin, 0.09 mg; riboflavin, 0.13 mg; niacin, 0.78 mg; vitamin C, 14 mg.